The CIES Football Observatory takes stock on Monday of 10 years of transfers in the five major Championships: PSG has the 3rd largest negative balance between purchases and sales of players. Lille and Lyon are the champions of positive balances. A few days after the closing of the winter transfer window (January 1-31 in France), the Football Observatory of the International Center for Sports Studies (CIES) in Neuchâtel returns in a study published Monday on ten years of transfers in the five major European Championships. The Observatory ranked the clubs according to the financial results of their operations on the player market during this period. Conclusion: “the trio of clubs with the most negative balances consists of Manchester United, Manchester City and PSG”. Another lesson: 14 Premier League teams are in the Top 20 clubs with the most deficit balance sheets. Report on transfers over the last ten seasons from the CIES Football Observatory “Only three Ligue 1 teams have a negative balance sheet (PSG, OM and Nice)” If the Observatory’s balance sheet highlights the lavish purchases of the new rich ( City and PSG) and more broadly English clubs, fed by the windfall of TV rights, it also highlights the positive balance of almost all French clubs on the transfer market over the past ten seasons. Two Ligue 1 clubs emerge as the teams with the most positive balances: Lille (+€349m) and Olympique Lyonnais (+€247m). AS Monaco is second in terms of revenue from player transfers over the past decade (€1.1 billion), just behind Chelsea. Only three Ligue 1 teams have a negative record (PSG, OM and Nice). On the contrary, in the Premier League, only Brentford has a positive balance. The Football Observatory specifies that the data used to arrive at these results take into account any bonuses associated with transactions, regardless of their actual payment. “Within the limits of the information available, revenue deriving from resale percentages is also taken into account”, add the authors of the study.